Madao Barrier Gate in the Qing Period



This page records References used in the Shu Roads documents and additional documents used in the “Chinese Name for Australia” document.


The List will be updated as other references are used.


It is here to provide a list that may also interest others. Most are English Language.



References from Shu Roads documents – primarily English language

Balconi, Lorenzo (1946). «33 anni in Cina», PIME, Milano 1946 (III Edizione), pagg. 62-63.

Bi, Qiong and Li, Xiaocong (2004). Research into “The Shu Road from Shaanxi to the Sichuan Border”. Cartography (China, in Chinese), 4, 45-50.

“Shan jing shu dao tu” yan jiu. Bi Qiong & Li Xiaocong, Ditu, 2004(4), ye 45

《陕境蜀道图》研究,毕琼李孝聪 (作者), 地图2004(4), 45

Bishop, Mrs J.F. (Isabella L. Bird) (1900). The Yangtze Valley and Beyond. In two volumes. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, London: John Murray.

Blakiston, Thomas W. (1862). Five Months on the Yang-Tsze; With a Narrative of Exploration of its Upper Water, and Notices of the Present Rebellion in China. John Murray, London, 1862.

Chen, Dezhi (1986). Marco Polo in China, the itineraries and dates. Studies in the History of the Yuan Dynasty and of the Northern Nationalities, 10, 1-9. (In Chinese).

陈得芝者, 马可波罗在中国的旅程及其年代, 元史及北方民族史研究集刊, 一九八六年七月, 第十期, 1-9.

Cooper, T. T. (Thomas Thornville) (1871). Travels of a Pioneer of Commerce in Pigtail and Petticoats: or, an Overland Journey from China Towards India. London: John Murray, 1871

Cressy, G.B. (1934). China’s Geographic Foundations, McGraw-Hill, 1934

David, L’Abbe Pére Armand (1875). Journal de mon troisieme voyage d’exploration dans L’Empire Chinois. 2 volumes, Paris, Libraire Hachette et Co.

Davidson, Robert J. and Mason, Isaac (1905). Life in West China: Described by two residents in the Province of Sz-Chwan. Headley Brothers, London, 248p.

de Crespigny, R. (1984). Northern Frontier – The politics and Strategy of the Later Han Empire. Faculty of Asian studies, Australian National University, 1984.

de Rachewiltz, Igor (2002). F. Wood’s did Marco Polo go to China? A Critical Appraisal. Book Review, Technical Paper.,

du Halde, Pere Jean-Baptiste (SJ) (1736). Description Geographique, Historique, Chronologique, Politique, et Physique de L’Empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie Chinoise, Volume I. Henri Scheurleer, Paris.

East View Cartographic (2005). Russian Military Mapping: A Guide to using the most comprehensive source of global geospatial intelligence. Translation from Russian. (Russian edition edited by Maj. General Valery N. Filatov), East View Cartographic, Minneapolis, 188p.

Feng Suiping (2010). Further investigation of the Qing period "Map of the Shu Road to the Shaanxi border", Wenbo (Museums & Cultural Relics), Number 2, 2010 (In Chinese) "Qing 'Shanjing Shudao Tu' zai tan", Feng Suiping, Wenbo, 2010 nian, di 2 qi. "清《陕境蜀道图》再探",冯岁平者,《文博》2010年,第2

Feng, Shuiping (2003). The Northwest’s little South China – Hanzhong. Three Qin Press, Xi’an, Nov. 2003. (In Chinese).

Filia, Salvatore (1931). «Cinque lune nelle mani dei briganti cinesi», PIME, Milano 1931, pagg. 110.

Gheddo, Piero (2000) P.I.M.E. (1850-2000) 150 Anni di Missione,

Harrist, Robert E. Jr. (2008). The Landscape of Words: Stone Inscriptions from Early and Medieval China. University of Washington Press.

Herrmann, A. (1966). An Historical Atlas of China. (Second revised Edition, originally published in 1935). Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago.

Justman, Hope (2007). “Guide to Hiking China’s Old Road to Shu”. iUniverse Inc., New York Lincoln Shanghai, 436p.

Le Comte, Louis (1696). Nouveaux Mémoires sur l’état présent de la Chine (New Memoirs on the Present State of China), Paris, 1696.

Li Xiaocong (Ed) (2004). “Summaries of holdings in the US Library of Congress' Collection of ancient Chinese maps”, Beijing, Cultural Press, October 2004. (Chinese and English).

Meiguo Guohui Tushuguan Guancang Zhongwen Gu Ditu Xulu, Li Xiaocong bianzhu, Beijing Wenwu Chubanshe, 2004-10.

美国国会图书馆藏中文古地图叙录, 李孝聪编著, 北京:文物出版社, 2004—10. (中英)

Luo Guanzhong (fl. 1360). Three Kingdoms. (Novel: Sanguo Yanyi) Translated by Moss Roberts. Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1994.

Ma Qiang (2008) Evaluation of Wildlife in the Vicinity of the Shu Roads in the Tang and Song Dynasties. Collected Papers of the International Symposium on Historical Research of Plank Roads and Applications of 3S Technology, Shaanxi Peoples Education Press, Xi’an. (In Chinese).

Martini, Martino. (1655). Novus Atlas Sinensis. Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, pp. 413.

Meng, Qingren, and Zhang, Guowei (2000). Geologic framework and tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogen, central China. Tectonophysics, 323(3-4), 183-196

Minford, J. and Lau, J.S.M. (2000). Classical Chinese Literature. Volume I: From antiquity to the Tang Dynasty. The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Chinese University Press, Hong Kong.

Mostern, Ruth and Elijah Meeks (2008). The Qinling Frontier and the Construction of Empire in China: Three Examples from Early and Middle Period History. Collected Papers of the International Symposium on Historical Research of Plank Roads and Applications of 3S Technology, Shaanxi Peoples Education Press, Xi’an.

Nani, Leone (2003). Lost China: The Photographs of Leone Nani. (Clara Bulfoni and Anna Pozzi, Eds), Skira, Milano/NY, 2003.

Nebenzahl, Kenneth (2004). Mapping the Silk Road and Beyond. 2,000 years of exploring the East. Phaidon Press, New York, 176p.

Needham, J., Wang, L. & Lu G.D. (1971). Science and Civilisation in China. Volume 4. Physics and Physical Technology, Part III, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Cambridge University Press.

Pereira, Brig General George, compiled by Sir Francis Younghusband (1926). Peking to Lhasa. Boston & NY: Houghton Mifflin, 1926.

Pereira, Cecil (1924). Peking to Lhasa. The Geographical Journal, 64(2), 97-120.

Piassetsky, P. (1884). Russian travellers in Mongolia and China. Translated by J. Gordon-Cumming. London: Chapman & Hall. Two volumes with folding map.

PIME (2012). “PIME in Hanzhong (1885-1954)”, Parts a, b, c and Appendix,

Red Pine (translator). (2003). Poems of the Masters. China’s Classic Anthology of T’ang and Sung Dynasty Verse. Copper Canyon Press.

Shi, Changcheng and Zhang, Shujun (2008) Shipping activities in the Upper and Middle Reaches of the Han River in the Qing Dynasty. In The Collected Papers of the International Symposium on Historical Research of Plank Roads and Applications of 3S Technology, Edited by Hanzhong City Museum, Printed by Peoples Educational Press, Xian, Shaanxi. Pp 434-446. (In Chinese).

施昌成、张树军:清代汉江中上游航运海事, 栈道历史研究与3S技术应用国际学术研讨会 论文集, 汉中博物馆等编。西安,陕西人民教育出版社,2008.5

Sima Qian (120 BCE). Records of the Grand Historian. Translated by Burton Watson, Three Volumes (Revised 1993): Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty I, Han Dynasty II. Columbia University Press.

Smith, Arthur H. (1901). China in Convulsion. 2 Volumes, Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier, Edinburgh and London, 1901.

Tan, Qixiang (Ed.) (1996). “The Historical Atlas of China” Book 8, the Qing Period, China Map Press, Beijing.

中国历史地图集 第八册: 清时期 -- 谭其骧主编。北京: 中国地图出版社,1996.6 重印

Teichman, Eric (1921). Travels of a Consular Officer in North-west China, Cambridge University Press, 1921.

Twitchett, D. and Loewe, M. (Eds). (1986). The Cambridge History of China. Vol I, The Ch’in and Han Empires (221 B.C. – A.D. 220). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

von Richthofen, F.P.W. (1870) “From Si-ngan-fu to Ching-tu-fu” in Letter on the Province of Hunan. (Reports III. – VII on other Provinces of China). Pp 41-45.

Weins, H.J. (1949). “The Shu Tao or the Road to Szechuan: A study of the development and significance of Shensi-Szechuan road communication in West China.” PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Weins, H.J. (1949). The Shu Tao or Road to Szechwan, Geographical Review, Vol. 39 No 4 (Oct., 1949), pp. 584-604.

Wylie, A. (1867a). Notes on Chinese literature: with introductory remarks on the progressive advancement of the art; and a list of translations from the Chinese, into various European languages. Shanghae, American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1867.

Wylie, A. (1870). Notes of a Journey from Ching-Too to Hankow, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 14, No. 2 (1869 - 1870),pp. 168-185.

Wylie, Alexander (1867b). Memorials of Protestant Missionaries to the Chinese: giving a list of their publications, and obituary notices of the deceased, with copious indexes. Shanghae, American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1867.

Wyngaert, Anastasius van den (Ed) (1961). Sinica Franciscana, Rome, 1954-61. (In Latin with letters in Latin, Italian and Spanish)

Yan, Ping et al. (1998). Treasures of Maps – A Collection of Maps in Ancient China. Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping, Harbin Cartographic Publishing House.

Yule, H. and Cordier, H. (1903). The Travels of Marco Polo. The complete Yule-Cordier Edition. Dover Facsimile Edition, 1993.

Yule, Sir Henry and Henri Cordier (1998). The Book of Ser Marco Polo: the Venetian Concerning, the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. Two Volumes. Originally published in 1875.

Zhang, Haoliang (1990). Notes on historical environmental records: Collected forest stele of the Ba Mountains. Yunnan University Press. (In Chinese).

Zuo, Tangquan (2002). Sites with historical and cultural relics near Hanzhong, Hanzhong Bureau of Cultural Relics, published by the Oriental Press, Beijing 2002.

汉中文物古迹揽胜,汉中市文化文物局 编,左汤泉 编著,东方出版社,2002

Zürcher, E. (1971). The Buddhist Conquest of China. Sinica Leidensia,.



Additional References from “Australia’s Chinese Name”. Mostly in English.

Alenio, Giulio (1966). A record of the situation in foreign lands. Taiwan Commercial Press. Ai Rulüe zhuan, Zhi fang wai ji, Taiwan shang wu yin shu guan, Taibei shi, minguo 55, 1966.

艾儒略撰,職方外紀 ,臺北市,臺灣商務印書館, 民國55 (1966)

Barnett, Suzanne Wilson (1972). Protestant Expansion and Chinese Views of the West. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2 (1972), pp. 129-149.

Bennett, George Esq., F.L.S. (1834). “Wanderings in New South Wales, Batavia, Pedir, Coast, Singapore, and China; being a Journal of a naturalist in those countries, during 1832, 1833 and 1834”. Reviewed in the “Monthly Review” for 1834.

Bridgman, Elijah C. (1838). Brief account of the United States of America. (Meilige(ke?) hesheng guo zhilüe, 美理哥(?)合省國志略), (Singapore, 1838).

道光十八年戊戌(1838) 高理文之《美理哥國志略》即《亞美理格合省志略》 刊於新嘉坡堅夏書院。

Bridgman, Elijah C. (1844). A short record of the United States of America. (Ya-mo-li-ge he-sheng-guo zhilüe, 亞墨理格合省國志略). Hongkong, 1844.

道光廿四年甲辰(1844) 高理文於香港重刊《姜理哥合省國志略》易名為《亞墨理格合眾國志略》。

Bridgman, Elijah C. (1861). A short account of the Commonwealth of America. (Da Mei lianbang zhilüe, 大美聯邦志略). (National Library of Australia, available as electronic book via the internet,

Cartography Associates (2009). David Rumsey Map Collection. (Web Address),

Chang, Hsin-pao (1964). Commissioner Lin and the Opium War. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Clancy, R. (1995). The mapping of Terra Australis. A guide to early printed maps of Australia, Antractica and the South Pacific. Universal Press, Sydney.

Collis, M. (1952). Foreign Mud. Being an account of the Opium Imbroglio at Canton in the 1830’s and the Anglo-Chinese War that followed. Faber and Faber Ltd, London.

Drake, Fred W. (1975). China Charts the World. Hsu Chi-Yü and his Geography of 1848. Harvard East Asian Monographs, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Fairbank, J.K. (1969). Trade and diplomacy on the China coast. The opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1854. Stanford University Press.

Go, Bon Juan and Joaquin Sy (Eds) (2000). The Philippines in ancient Chinese maps. (中國古代地圖中的菲律濱). Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran Inc. Manila.

Gützlaff, Karl Freidrich (1833-1835). The Chinese Monthly (Dongxiyang kao meiyue tongji zhuan 東西洋考每月統計傳) (East-west examiner and monthly recorder, or magazine), (Canton, 1833-1835; Singapore, 1837-1839).

Gützlaff, Karl Freidrich (1834). Comprehensive account of Great Britain, (Da Yingguo tongzhi 大英國統治) (Malacca, 1834).

Gützlaff, Karl Freidrich (1838a). Notes on the past and present of the countries of the world. (Gujin wanguo gangjian lu 古今萬國綱鑒錄), (Singapore, 1838).

Gützlaff, Karl Freidrich (1838b). Universal Geography. (Wanguo dili quanji 萬國地理全集), (Singapore, 1838).

Gutzlaff, Karl Freidrich (1839). A history of the country of the Jews. (Youtai Guoshi 猶太國史), (Singapore, 1839).

Gutzlaff, Karl Freidrich (1840). A general account of trade. (Maoyi tongzhi 貿易通志), (Singapore, 1840).

Gutzlaff, Karl Friedrich August, & Huang, Shijian. (1997). Dong xi yang kao mei yue tong ji zhuan / Aihanzhe deng bian, Huang Shijian zheng li Zhonghua shu ju, Beijing.

東西洋考每月统记傳 / 爱漢者等编,黃時鑑整理.

Harrison, B. (1979). Waiting for China. Hong Kong University Press.

Hopkirk, Peter (1990). The Great Game. On Secret Service in High Asia. John Murray (Publishers).

Hummel, A.W. (1943). Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing period. 2 Volumes. Original edition US Gov Printing Office Washington, Reprinted 2002 by SMC Publishing House, Taiwan, ROC.

Keith, Thomas (1826). New treatise on the Use of the Globes, or a philosophical view of the Earth and Heavens. Samuel Wood & Sons, New York. (available from Google Books:

Lazich, Michael C. (2000). E.C. Bridgman (1801-1861), America's first missionary to China. E. Mellen Press, Lewiston, N.Y.

Leonard, Jane Kate (1984). Wei Yuan and China's rediscovery of the maritime world. Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, Distributed by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Li, Mingche (2000). Explanation of the heavenly spheresBeijing Press, Beijing. Li Mingche zhuan, Huan tian tu shuoBeijing chu ban she, Beijing, 2000.


Liang, Tingnan (1846). Four essays on the maritime nations. Liang Tingnan, 1846, "Hai Guo Si Shuo"


Lin, Zexu and Zhang, Manping (2002). An account of the four continents., Beijing Huaxia Press.

《四洲志》林则徐著; 张曼评注, 北京: 华夏出版社, 2002

Liu, Jianhui (2009). Birth of an East Asian Information Network. In Demon capital Shanghai: The “modern” experience of Japanese intellectuals, trans. Joshua A. Fogel. Sino-Japanese Studies 16, article 5. Also at

Liu, Lydia H. (2004). The clash of Empires: the invention of modern China in modern world making. Harvard University Press, Mass, 318p.

Lowe Kong Meng, Cheok Hong Cheong, Louis Ah Mouy (eds), The Chinese Question In Australia, 1878-79, F. F. Bailliere, Melbourne, 1879.

Lutz, J.G. (2008). Opening China. Karl F. Gutzlaff and Sino-Western Relations, 1827-1852. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Michigan, USA.

Malcolm, Elizabeth L. (1973). The Chinese Repository and Western Literature on China 1800 to 1850. Modern Asian Studies, 7(2), 165-178.

Medhurst, Walter Henry (1819). A geographical catechism, (dili biantong lüezhuan, 地理便童略傳), Malacca.

嘉慶廿四年己卯(1819) 麥都思 撰《地理使童略傳》 二十頁,刊於馬六甲。

Medhurst, Walter Henry (1838). China: Its state and prospects: with special reference to the spread of the gospel. London, John Snow.

Milne, William (1822). Brief sketch of all the kingdoms of the world, Malacca.

道光二年壬午(1822) 米憐之《全地萬國紀略》三十頁,於馬六甲出版。

Milne, William (Ed) (1815-1821). Chinese Monthly Magazine (Chashisu meiyue tongjizhuan, 察世俗每月統記傳), 7 vols., Malacca.

Morrison, E. and Kidd, S. (1834). Memoirs of the Life and Labours of Robert Morrison, D.D. Volume 2, reprinted by Bibliobazaar.

Morrison, Robert (1819) Tour of the world, (xiyou diqiu wenjian lüezhuan, 西游地球聞見略傳), Malacca.


Murray, Hugh (1839). The Encyclopaedia of Geography. Comprising a complete description of the Earth, physical, statistical, civil and political: exhibiting its relation to the heavenly bodies, its physical structure, the natural history of each country, and the industry, commerce, political institutions, and civil and social state of all nations. 3 Volumes, Lea and Blanchard, Philadelphia. US Edition (first published London 1834, first revised US Edition 1837). Available through Google Books.

Nebenzahl, Kenneth (2004). Mapping the Silk Road and Beyond. 2,000 years of exploring the East. Phaidon Press, New York, 176p.

Rao, Zongyi. 1994, Xinjiapo gu shi ji, Rao Zongyi bian. Zhong wen da xue chu ban she, Xianggang, Chinese University Press.

《新加坡古事記》饒宗頤編, 香港 中文大學出版社, 1994

Rolls, Eric (1992). Sojourners: The epic story of China’s centuries-old relationship with Australia. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland.

Rubinstein, Murray A. (1982). Propagating the Democratic Gospel: Western missionaries and the diffusion of Western thought in China 1830-1848. Bulletin of the Institute of Modern History, Acadamia Sinica (Taiwan), 11, 251-272.

Shen, Guowei (2001) The creation of technical terms in English-Chinese dictionaries from the nineteenth century. In Michael Lackner (Ed), New terms for new ideas: western knowledge and lexical change in late imperial China, Leiden; Boston; Koln: Brill, 2001.

Smith, R.J. (1996). Chinese Maps. Images of “All under heaven”. Oxford University Press.

Thompson, J. (2010). Documents that shaped Australia: Records of a Nation’s heritage. Pier 9, Murdoch Books Australia, Sydney, Au stralia, 362p.

Tooley, R.V. (1979). The mapping of Australia. The Holland Press, London.

Waley, A. (1958). The opium war through Chinese eyes. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London.

Wei Yuan (2004). The Collected Works of Wei Yuan, Wei Yuan Collected Works compilation committee, Yue Lu Press, Changsha City. (In Chinese).

Wei Yuan quan ji / [Wei Yuan quan ji bian ji wei yuan hui bian xiao], Changsha shi : Yue lu shu she, 2004.

魏源全集,(魏源全集编辑委员会编校) 长沙市: 岳麓书社, 2004.

Wei Yuan, (1966). Haiguo Tuzhi (Gazetteer of the Maritime Nations) Second Edition, 1847 60 volumes, reprinted by Chengwen Press, Taipei, Taiwan.

魏源, 《海国图志》, 1847 60, 1966 成文出版社 重印,臺北,臺灣

Wei Yuan, Haiguo Tuzhi (Gazetteer of the Maritime Nations) Preface, First Edition, 1842 50 volumes; Second Edition, 1847 60volumes; Third Edition, 1852 100 volumes.

魏源, 《海国图志》,扬州古微堂, 1842 50, 1847 60, 1852 100

Welch, Ian (2003). Alien Son: The life and times of Cheok Hong Cheong, (Zhang Zhuoxiong) 1851-1928. PhD Thesis, the Australian National University, Available at ANU Digital Theses: (wait).

Xu Jiyu, Ying huan zhi lue (A short account of the oceans and their surrounds), 10 volumes, Fuzhou, 1848.

徐繼畬, 《瀛环志略》 10, 福建, 1848.

Yan, Ping et al. (1998). Treasures of Maps – A Collection of Maps in Ancient China. Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping, Harbin Cartographic Publishing House.

Zhang, Qiusheng (1997). History of overseas Chinese and Chinese people in Australia. Foreign Languages and Research Press. (In Chinese)

张秋生著, 《澳大利亚华侨华人史》外语教学与研究出版社, 1997

Zhao, Lifeng and Wu, Zhen (2006). Aomen tusheng puren Hanxuejia Ma Jishi  yu "Xinshi dili beikao", Journal of Jinan University (Philosophy & Social Science Edition), 28(2), 131-136


Zhuang Qinyong (Chng, David K. Y) (2007). Xin Jia Hua ren shi shi liao kao shi. Nanyang da xue xue shu lun cong. 10, Zhuang Qinyong juan, Xinjiapo: Xinjiapo qing nian shu ju, 2007

著者, 庄钦永, 新甲华人史史料考释. 南洋大学学术论丛. 10, 庄钦永卷, 新加坡: 新加坡青年书局, 2007

Zou, Zhenhuan (2008). On the “Concise Foreign History” and Its Authors. Journal of Sun Yat-Sen University (Social Science Edition), 48(5). 100-108. (In Chinese)

《外国史略》及其作者问题新探, 邹振环作者, 中山大学学报(社会科学版), 2008, 48(5).


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