Qing Period Stone Gate and Chicken Head Pass Scroll

QinShuRoads PUBLICATIONS & WEB DOCUMENTS:

 

Documents and papers developed for the Shu Roads project can be accessed in Adobe Acrobat PDF format for reading and/or download. The PDF files need an Acrobat Reader.

 

The documents are provided to introduce the Qinling Roads to Shu and so that historical information previously only in Chinese language is available to English speakers. The Introduction to the Hard Roads to Shu is a general English language introduction to China's Shu Roads and their long and colourful history. Others are arranged below for you to browse.

You are welcome to direct questions and comments to David Jupp via email at dlbjupp@ozemail.com.au

 

 

Symposium Documents

 

3S技术在栈道研究中的应用。I: 地理、地质和历史背景, II: 3S技术与澳中合作项目

Final Version of the papers in Chinese by the Project Principals (David Jupp, Brian Lees, Li Rui and Feng Suiping) from the Proceedings of the Hanzhong May 2007 Symposium “Symposium on Plank Road Research and Applications of 3S Technology” made available here in full colour. For more information see HERE.

The Application of 3S Technology to Plank Road research and development of spatial information systems in the Qinling and Daba Mountains. I. Geographical, Geological and Historical Background, II. 3S Technology and the Australia-China Project.

Final Version of the papers in English by the Project Principals (David Jupp, Brian Lees, Li Rui and Feng Suiping) from the Proceedings of the Hanzhong May 2007 Symposium “Symposium on Plank Road Research and Applications of 3S Technology” made available here in full colour. For more information see HERE.

《台克满爵士和傥骆道》

This document is the Chinese language version of one referred to below as "Teichman on the Foping Trail". It was translated from English into Chinese by Peng Minjia of the Hanzhong Museum and presented at a Conference in Hanzhong in November 2013.
The reference to this paper is: David Jupp (Jia Dawei) author, Peng Minjia Translator, "Sir Eric Teichman and the Tangluo Road", in Collected papers for the "Symposium on China's Shu Roads", edited by the Hanzhong City Museum, November 11, 2013.
中国蜀道学术研讨会论文集,汉中市博物馆编,2013年11月,[澳]David Jupp(贾大伟)著、彭敏佳译《台克满先生和傥骆道》 More information can be found on the main web page collating information and documents concerning Sir Eric Teichman's travels HERE.

Main Web Documents

 

An introduction to the “Hard Roads to Shu”, their environment, history, and adventures since ancient times

An Introduction to China’s Shu Roads. Basic introduction developed to provide English language readers with essential information and background to the location, geography and history of the ancient roads from Qin (Wei River valley in Shaanxi) to Shu (Sichuan). It lists references to other English language material and makes good use of information from papers given at the 2007 Hanzhong 3S Conference as well as other materials in Chinese - some of which have been translated and are available on this web site.

1. Sir Eric Teichman and the Tangluo Shu Road

2. Stories from Teichman's Tangluo Road

In 1917, Sir Eric Teichman, a Consular Officer, made a visit to the west of China to investigate compliance with the ban on opium production. However, he was also a traveller and keen reporter of all things about China and Chinese at the time. Among his travels he used the ancient Tangluo Road to cross the Qinling from Hanzhong to the Wei Valley. This pair of documents discusses the ancient Tangluo Road, its history, literature, wildlife and future around the central theme of the detailed travel diary left by Sir Eric. Background material and a number of related supporting publications and links can be found on a separate web page HERE.

Alexander Wylie’s Travels on Shu Roads in 1867

A description of the journey made by Alexander Wylie in 1868 along the Jinniu Road from Chengdu to Hanzhong, then by road across to Shiquan and finally by boat on the Han River to Hankou. This document also describes what was found during a re-visit of the section from Chengdu to Hanzhong by David Jupp and staff from Hanzhong Museum in 2012.
Alexander Wylie's background and related publications can be found on a separate web page HERE.

The Kangxi Jesuit maps of 1721

The Kangxi Emperor employed Jesuit mathematicians (1708-1718) to design and manage the production of a set of maps of the provinces of China using a combination of western and Chinese survey methods. The mapping was completed in 1721. This document outlines the mapping process in 5 Provinces and how an accurate mosaic can be constructed. It also analyses the accuracy of the maps in modern terms and the relationship between the maps and traditional Chinese maps. Background material and access to maps and presentations can be found on a separate web page HERE.

Catholic Missionaries on China’s Qinling Shu Roads: Including an account of the Hanzhong Mission at Guluba

For 400 years, Catholic Missionaries have been visiting the west of China and recording their travels and experiences. This document describes some of the reports they have left and their experiences, and especially those related to the Hanzhong region. The Catholic settlement at Guluba, which was visited by Sir Eric Teichman in 1917, is described and its history related. The history of Guluba between the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 and the foundation of Modern China in 1949 also provides rare insights into these turbulent times as experienced in the Hanzhong region.

A visit to China (originally) to edit papers from a Symposium - in May 2008

Report provided for a visit to China in May 2008 primarily to help prepare papers for publication in Hanzhong. The visit unfortunately included the tragic Sichuan Earthquake of May 12. The experience of the time and some responses of Chinese are described here plus some other less traumatic and productive outcomes of the visit.

Travelling from Hanzhong to Shiquan via Xixiang

Alexander Wylie traveled between Hanzhong and Shiquan via Xixiang in 1868. Sir Eric Teichman traveled the other direction in 1917. These reports and some other interesting aspects of the area – such as the previous Missionary settlement at Guluba and the Mosque at Shahe Kan, led to a visit to the route in 2012. This document outlines the history of the road, previous travelers and the findings made during field work in 2012.
The Reports from the field visits of 2012 and other related supporting publications can be found on a separate web page HERE.

The Baoye Road to Shu – from Guanzhong to Yu Pen

Story of the visit to Hanzhong across the Qinling from the Wei Valley by David Jupp and others from Yangling in 2005 to start the present cooperation with the Hanzhong Museum. Route taken was along the still developing modern road that has replaced the ancient Baoye Road.

The Chinese name for Australia

The name for Australia in Chinese was provided by a scholar missionary in 1835 and accepted by Chinese as the name for Australia by Chinese in the mid-1840s. This Final and Penultimate document by the author of this web site outlines the rather complex history of how Australia came to have its present name in Chinese and identifies the missionary who "discovered" it. The document is summarised and presented on its own web page HERE. The writer found it an amazing and educational journey. Although others may not find it as interesting as he, it has been a great experience and satisfying project. This document will only have substantial changes if it moves from present form to an edited publication.

Translations

 

Postscript to the “Map of neighbouring regions of four provinces on the north bank of the Han River” from the collection of the US Library of Congress

The “Map of the four provinces on the north bank of the Han River” and other maps and materials by Yan Ruyi (produced between 1800~1820) have been studied after a copy of the map was found in the collection of the US Library of Congress. Feng Suiping has expanded on initial studies for this map by Prof Li Xiaocong and a translation of his revised and publication ready paper can be accessed HERE. The translated paper takes account of new material found to be at the Taipei Palace Museum. The various materials relating to the maps of this time can be found on a web page HERE.

A discussion concerning the "Map of four provinces north of the Han River" in the collection of the Taipei Palace Museum

The mapping of the western provinces carried out by Yan Ruyi and others between 1804 and 1825 is of great significance for Shu Road research. A translation of the the significant paper by Feng Suiping discussing the map found in the US Library of Congress can be found HERE. Recently, it has been found that finely drawn copies of the map and its companion for the southern areas can be found in the Taipei Palace Museum Map collection. Feng Suiping has evaluated the various maps in a comprehensive discussion. Its tranlation can be found HERE. The rich material available from this active period of mapping is of great significance in the history of Chinese geographic science. The various materials relating to the maps of this time can be found on a web page HERE.

Yang Guifei and the Tangluo Road

"Did Yang Guifei escape along the Tangluo Road?" was the question answered along with stories of the present day area around Huayang and the remains of the ancient Tangluo Road by Shui Xiaojie, a writer and photographer. This translation provides us with very interesting historical and semi-historical stories. It is a very interesting read. You are welcome to access it along with other stories from Sir Eric Teichman's Tangluo Road HERE.

The Ancient Tangluo Road and Huayang Township

Zhou Zhongqing of the Yangxian Museum in Hanzhong City area wrote a paper on the history of the Tangluo Road and of the important township of Huayang. The paper contains material of interest not yet available in English. It has been translated and provided here together with the original Chinese text as a resource and reference for other work on this ancient Qinshu Road.

Two translated excerpts concerning the official account and path of the Tangluo Road

Prof Li Zhiqin's 1986 book "Ancient records of the Shu Roads" is a basic reference for the Shu Roads. The section that introduces the history of the ancient Tangluo Road was translated to provide a basic authoritative statement of this history in English. The translation and the Chinese text are both to be found here.

Translation of: Research into “Map of the Shu Road from Shaanxi to the Sichuan border” ( 《陕境蜀道图》)

Translation of a paper by Bi Qiong and Li Xiaocong concerning the Qing Period scroll map that Prof Li found when he was cataloguing the holdings of maps that are part of the Hummel Collection at the US Library of Congress. The Chinese language text is also provided as well as colour versions of the maps and a set of endnotes. A separate web page with more information surrounding this map can be accessed HERE.

清《陕境蜀道图》再探

Chinese Version of the Paper by Feng Suiping on the Library of Congress scroll map of the northern plank road. Provided as access to the Chinese version is not currently easy and also to provide consistent comparison and reference for the English translation. Further information can be accessed HERE.

Translation of: Further investigation of the Qing period “Map of the Shu Road to the Shaanxi border”

Translation of a paper published by Feng Suiping of the Hanzhong Museum discussing the Qing Period scroll map obtained as a scanned set from the US Library of Congress. It has been acquired by Arthur Hummel in 1930 and donated to the US LoC. It was described by Herold Wiens in his Thesis in 1949 after Arthur Hummel informed him of its presence. Prof Li Xiaocong cooperated with the LoC to catalogue their holdings of ancient Chinese maps and reported initial findings. Feng Suiping’s paper is an important addition to many aspects of the discussion. An account of all material surrounding the map is to be found HERE.

Introduction to Hanzhong Museum and the Baoxie Road from two translations

Translations of two excerpts from a publication by the Hanzhong Museum on the Plank Roads, the Baoye Road and the Hanzhong Museum. Aims to make information previously only in Chinese available to English speakers.

(Translation of) Notes from Travels in Australia by Feng Suiping

Translation of Travel Notes published later in China by the Director of the Hanzhong Museum, Feng Suiping in 2008. They relate his experiences and thoughts whilst visiting the Golden Dragon Museum in Bendigo, Victoria Australia in the heart of the original Gold Fields.

Project Cartographic Material & Map Information

 

Notes on the updated Qinling Shu Road maps and the two super-overlay images

A working document outlining the Places, Routes and Tracks database and its Google Earth presentation for the Shu Roads Project. It is a useful reference for people using the presentation.

Introduction to Yan Ruyi's Qinling and Han River maps from the period 1805 to 1825

A summary of background and useful material for studying the Yan Ruyi maps provided from the project web site. Included in related Google Earth KMZ file presentations.

Using Travel Reports, Maps & GPS to find the old Shu Postal Road

An extensive set of mapping material has been collated and used to develop a Google Earth presentation of the Shu Roads and its associated data base. The material includes travel notes by western explorers, Russian Topographic maps, Google Earth, Qing period maps and GPS tracks and waypoints collected during visits. This document describes the extent set of information and its use. The wider context of this information and The ongoing use of this material can be seen at the web page listing outcomes of the 2012 Fieldwork HERE.

Mosaics based on the Russian Topographic Map Series

One of the tools used for the mapping of the Shu Roads has been a 1:200k and 1:100k Russian Topographic map series. The maps were originally developed from aerial photography acquired by Russian military reconnaissance during their cooperation with China before 1965. This document describes the characteristics of the maps and how to interpret the Russian Cyrillic as Chinese Pinyin. The ongoing use of these maps can be seen at the web page listing outcomes of the 2012 Fieldwork HERE.

QING PERIOD NORTHERN PLANK ROAD SCROLL MAP: SET I – BAOJI TO WUGUAN

First of three PDF Files with segmented sections of the Qing Period US LoC scroll map in a form aimed for printing to an A3 page sized booklet on both sides of the paper in "horizontal" presentation. Segments 1-12 are from Baoji on the Wei River south to Wuguan Yi. The map segmentss are intended to be looked from the BACK towards the front – as was the scroll map with facing pages as a continuous presentation. To view the other way you could start with the third PDF File (below) reading the front - at the Sichuan Border. A page outlining all of the material associated with the scroll map can be accessed HERE.

QING PERIOD NORTHERN PLANK ROAD SCROLL MAP: SET II – WUGUAN TO MAPING SI

The second of three PDF Files with segmented sections of the Qing Period US LoC scroll map in a form aimed for printing to an A3 page sized booklet on both sides of the paper in "horizontal" presentation. Segments 13-24 are from Wuguan Yi to Qipan Guan reading from the back to the front. A page outlining all of the material associated with the scroll map can be accessed HERE.

QING PERIOD NORTHERN PLANK ROAD SCROLL MAP: SET III – JITOU GUAN – QIPAN GUAN

The third of three PDF Files with segmented sections of the Qing Period US LoC scroll map in a form aimed for printing to an A3 page sized booklet on both sides of the paper in "horizontal" presentation. Segments 25-35 are from Qipan Guan to the Sichuan Border reading from the back to the front. A page outlining all of the material associated with the scroll map can be accessed HERE.

Supporting Material for Web Documents & Translations

 

Extracted Route log from Hanzhong to Zhouzhi along the Ancient Tangluo Track by Sir Eric Teichman

Sir Eric Teichman travelled the ancient Tangluo Road in 1917. He left a detailed account of his journey along one of the most mysterious of the ancient roads. This document contains extracts from his book making up a focussed route log plus a tabulation of the places on the route he took. It was vital input to the production of the Google Earth presentation of the Tangluo Road network.
Further background and material related to the Tangluo Road and Sir Eric Teichman's visit can be found on a separate web page HERE.

Alexander Wylie Itinerary by places visited

A Tabular interpretation of Alexander Wylie’s travel route with conversion of his transliterations to Chinese and identifications of places he visited with modern places. Includes the whole journey as reported in his 1870 paper. It has also now incorporated information and been cross matched with Wylie's complete itinerary that was published in Shanghai in 1868.
Alexander Wylie's background and related publications can be found on a separate web page HERE.

Observations and questions concerning Barrier Posts on the Northern Plank Road

The Qing Period scroll map has been explored and used to help define places and routes for the northern Plank Road across the Qinling and translations of Chinese studies are available in this web site. This document describes and discusses the depiction of Barrier Passes on the road and poses some questions about their representation. A page outlining all of the material associated with this mid-Qing scroll map can be accessed HERE.

Note on an anomaly in a Qing Scroll Map

The Qing Period scroll map, described in full detail on its own web page HERE, has an anomaly discovered by Director Feng Suiping of Hanzhong Museum. This document brings other information to bear and tries to propose possible alternative solutions to the anomaly.

Afterword to “The Chinese name for Australia”

An afterward outlining the background to possible sources and options for the identity of the person who named Australia in Chinese in greater detail than in the main text. It can also to be found on the separate web page for this topic HERE.

DXYK Final Translation

A translation of the articles(s) from 1834 and 1835 issues of the East-West Monthly Magazine published by Charles Gutzlaff and which mention the name for Australia in Chinese. The text used incorporates some corrections made by Liang Tingnan in his 1845 book "Haiguo Si Shuo". As a translation from a Chinese language article written by a western missionary aimed to inform Chinese – back into English – it was an extra challenge! This translation and others of a number of other sections of text in Chinese can be found in the PDF document on the Chinese Name for Australia HERE.

Notes on LOC Scroll Translation

Notes made to support the translation of the papers by Bi and Li and by Feng Suiping. It describes and justifies choices made as well as providing other background information. Further information can be found HERE.

The Library of Congress Qing Period Scroll Map of the Route From Shaanxi to Sichuan

Translation of the Chinese language entry for the scroll map described in the translations here in the book written by Li Xiaocong and others describing the US LoC Collection of ancient Chinese maps. The English language text is also included. The English and Chinese descriptions provide some different information and perspectives. The discussion is part of the main US LoC scroll map page to be found HERE.

Palladius-Pinyin Conversion Table

A Table for the Palladius transliteration of Chinese between Russian and Pinyin. A number of older variants are recorded as well. It is to be used to interpret the annotations in the Russian Topographic maps as Pinyin and to help identify the locations in Chinese characters. Discussions about the use of the Table can be found HERE.

Patterns and issues in Wylie’s transliterations

A Table of transliterations to Pinyin for Alexander Wylie’s transliterations of Chinese names into Latin alphabet. Wylie used a system of his own but based on an emerging consensus among Missionaries. The variations used in 1870 were soon to be replaced with the more consistent Wade-Giles transliteration. The Table was constructed by collecting examples when developing the Table of Places visited by Wylie. The Table can be also be found with other documents discussing this issue HERE.

ACC Presentations & Reports

 

The framework for an Application of 3S Technology to Shuroads

Talk given in Hanzhong in 2007 outlining the opportunities and tools that make up the Shu Roads Project and its integration of 3S technology into the presentation of the history of the Shu Roads. A reduced set was presented at the 2007 Symposium. This is the complete set in balanced English and Chinese with full colour images.

中澳合作在中国西部汉中地区应用3S技术促进历史古迹研究,提高历史文化影响

Main statement in Chinese outlining the project plan and provided on the Web site during both phases of the project in the period between 2006 and 2009. This is the Chinese language version. For full reporting of outcomes see the acquittal page HERE.

Australia-China Cooperation to Enhance the Knowledge and Impacts of Historical Culture through 3S Technologies in the Hanzhong Area of Western China

Main statement in Engllish outlining the project plan and provided on the Web site during both phases of the project in the period between 2006 and 2009. This is the English language version. For full reporting of outcomes see the acquittal page HERE.

Shu roads – from the Qin Dynasty to the Sichuan earthquake

PDF of a PPT presentation given to the Australia-China Friendship Society in April 2009. It has a comprehensive outline of the project and its outcomes as at 2009. The additional PDF (Dadizhen.pdf) provided an external link to some images from the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake.

The great Wenchuan earthquake

Linked PDF of images from the May 2008 Sichuan Earthquake presented in the Talk of April 2009 (above) to the Australia-China Friendship Society.

References for the Australia China Council Phase II Acquittal

Link to the full set of documents collected for the acquittal of the first Australia-China Council project.

Access to Original References

 

Wylie_1870_1799562.pdf

PDF of the original paper by Alexander Wylie describing his journey on the Jinniu Road to Hanzhong, linking travel in the Hanzhong Basin to Shiquan and travel down the Han River (back) to Hankou. published by the Royal Geographical Society of London in 1870 as: Wylie, Alexander (1869). Notes of a Journey from Ching-Too to Hankow. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 168-185.

Wylie_Record_of_Itinerary_1868.pdf

PDF of the original complete itinerary including places and rivers passed or crossed on the round journey from Hankou along the Yangtze through Hubei to Sichuan and its capital at Chengdu then north via Hanzhong in Shaanxi back down the Han River and back to Hankou. The full reference to this itinerary is: Wylie, Alexander (1868). Itinerary of a journey through the provinces of Hoo-Pĭh, Sze-Chuen and Shen-Se. Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, Vol. 5, pp. 153-258.

Shu_Roads_HJ_Wien_1949.pdf

Paper by Herold Wiens published in the Geographical Review in 1949. Full reference: Wiens, H.J. (1949b). The Shu Tao or Road to Szechwan, Geographical Review, Vol. 39 No 4 (Oct., 1949), pp. 584-604. Herold Wiens' information and papers are to be found on a separate web page HERE.

Wiens_Thesis.pdf

Herold Wiens' full Thesis was presented to the University of Michigan in 1949. Full reference: Wiens, H.J. (1949a). The Shu Tao or the Road to Szechuan: A study of the development and significance of Shensi-Szechuan road communication in West China. PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. A PDF of its Microform version can be accessed by this link (warning ... it is 25 MB). Herold Wiens' information and papers are to be found on a separate web page HERE.

Collected_Symposium_Papers_Draft.pdf

PDF of a draft version of all of the papers from the 2007 Hanzhong "Symposium on Historical Research of Plank Roads and Applications of 3S technology" as finally published by the Hanzhong Museum. (Warning ... it is 8 MB).

 

A list of the references (mainly in English Language) used in the documents developed here as well as the document about the 'Chinese Name for Australia' has been constructed and can be accessed HERE.

 

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